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1908. Ervio, L.R.. 1978. The effect of the sowing date and density of winter cereals (wheat, rye) on weeds.. Annales Agri. Fenniae, vol. 17:18-22.
Cereal stands developed more sparsely the later they were sown. The latest sowing date also proved detrimental to weeds, and their numbers and weight were lowest in this sowing. In other sowings, the weight of weeds was reduced in stands which survived dense.
6802. Thill, D.C.. 1982. Chemical fallow weed control.. ID Agr. Expt. Sta. CIS #643.
Lists herbicides labelled for chem fallow.
8773. Jones, D.P. (ed.). 1976. Wild oats in world agriculture.. Agriculture Research Council, London. 296 pp..
This extensive review book covers all aspects of wild oat (Avena fatua) growth, competition, and control. It includes chapters on cultural control and biological control, as well as chemical control. The effect of straw burning on wild oat is temporary relief but seldom gives much long-term improvement. Considerable loss of seed can occur from the surface of uncultivated soil, due to biological factors, during the first 4-5 months after seed fall. Seed loss can be much lower when the soil is cultivated during this period. Rodents and birds can consume considerable amounts of wild oat seed.
9216. Alvord, E.D.. 1918. A study of Washington weeds.. M.S. thesis, Washington State College, Pullman, WA.
91. Anon.. 1989 Sept.. New machine 'prevents' weeds.. New Farm, p. 33, Rodale Press, Emmaus, PA.
A retired farmer has invented a device that attaches to the back of combines and harvests weed seeds that would otherwise be dropped in the field. Material coming off the chaffer is fed into the harvester's chute. A drag chain carries it over a vibrating screen, which separates weed seeds from straw. An auger moves the seed to a bin. Field tests have shown the device to be most effective with light seeds such as wild oats and kochia. The weed seed can potentially be used as a supplemental livestock feed. Contact Art Fossum, 1034 N. 15th St., Fargo, ND 58102.
154. Alberta Agriculture, Crop Protection Branch. 1989. Guide to crop protection in Alberta. 1988. Part II - Non-chemical control of weeds, insects, diseases for maximum economic yield.. Print Media Branch, Alberta Agriculture, 7000 - 113 St.,.
Alberta Agriculture's non-chemical guide to crop protection contains 28 pages of general advice on how to control weeds, insects, and disease in crops without chemical pesticides. This includes crop rotation, sanitation, crop competition, physical control, biocontrol, and field scouting. The rest of the book looks at specific pests and considers their life cycles, emergence, reproduction, management strategies, and control. Where available, tables of economic thresholds are included. This is an excellent reference for assessing potential alternatives to chemical pesticides for a large number of pests.
356. Anon.. 1989. Fine-tuning mix water.. Agrichemical Age, October 1989.
Herbicide performance can be greatly affected by the quality of the tank mix water. Water-soluble post emergent herbicides, such as glyphosate and phenoxys, seem to be most sensitive. Three factors are important: water pH; cation concentration; and suspended solids. Post-emergent herbicides perform best when the tank mix is acidic. Optimum for phenoxys and glyphosate is pH 3-4. Hard water will reduce activity when herbicides are mixed and stored for many hours. Cation effects on deactivation are as follows: most severe - Fe++, Fe+++, Al+++; severe - Ca++, Zn++; moderate - Mg++; minimal - K+, Na+. Water with suspended dirt or organic matter will bind with many herbicides.
453. Anon.. undated. A long range program for weed control.. V. Kaiser papers, box 3, folder 203.
Suggests a 7 yr rotation; yr 1 plant alfalfa/grass mix (brome, fescue, and orchardgrass); mow when needed; yr 2,3,4- cut for hay, or pasture; yr 4- plow around June 15, cultivate to control weeds; 2,4-D; dry plow after harvest; yr 6 - fallow, yr 7- winter wheat.
463. Anon.. 1989. The winds of change.. Agrichemical Age, November 1989.
Adoption of chem fallow has been slow in the northern Plains, being used only on about 20% of the acres. It is one of the best practices to prevent wind erosion in the region. Roundup with 2,4-D and atrazine has been the standard treatment. Now Command is labelled for this use, and Command/atrazine is another choice. Carryover problems with atrazine can be avoided if rates are kept below 1/2 lb/ac.
680. Baysinger, O.J. and G.A. Laa. 1980. 1979 survey of exotic noxious weeds in Idaho.. Id Agr. Expt. Sta. Misc. Series #57.
Survey done by county - lists species found and their exact location; also has a state map with weed species identified.
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