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soil quality wheat
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651. Bakken, L.R., T. Borresen and A. Njos. 1987. Effect of soil compaction by tractor traffic on soil structure, denitrification, and yield of wheat.s. J. of Soil Sci., 38:541-552.
Tractor traffic on wet soil reduced the pore volume, doubled the percentage of large aggregates (>20mm), reduced the wheat yield by about 25%, and increased the N-loss through denitrification by a factor of 3-4. None of these parameters was affected by tractor traffic at low soil moisture content. The weight of the tractor did not significantly alter the effect of compaction on the measured parameters.
870. Black, A.L.. 1973. Soil property changes associated with crop residue management in a wheat-fallow rotation.. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 37:943-946.
1266. Chandra, P., W.B. Bollen, and L.T. Kadry. 1962. Microbial studies of two Iraqi soils representative of an ancient site.. Soil Sci. 94:251-257.
Alluvial soils cultivated for 4-5000 years. No fertilizer, crop residues removed. Low OM, N, and total bacteria and fungi. After 5 days incubation, micorbial levels increased to values similar to more humid, fertile soils. Azotobacter was present. Decomposition of native and added organic matter was relatively slow. Measured soil properties, microbial levels, ammonification, nitrification, denitrification, S oxidation, P mineralization, decomposition of various added organic materials.
2655. Hoes, J.A.. 1963. Dynamics of the mycoflora of subterranean parts of winter wheat in the dryland area of Washington.. Ph.D.Thesis, Plant Pathology, Washington State Univ., Pullman.
A study of a blight of Turkey type wheats led to detailed descriptions of fungal flora in the wheat rhizosphere from the Lind, WA area. Fungal populations are a function of: plant part; site along the root; soil depth; season; year; and presence or absence of disease. An excellent review of literature is included. T: many.
3080. Tangren, G.V.. 1979. Subsoil bulk densities in some Whitman county small grain fields.. M.S. Thesis, Dept. of Agronomy and Soils, WSU, Pullman, WA.
4377. McKay, H.C. and W.A. Moss. 1949. High protein wheat with conservation farming.. U. of Idaho Extension Bull. #181.
Emphasize need for legume - grass rotation to maintain soil productivity. Suggest a 7 yr sweet clover rotation or a 9 yr alfalfa rotation. Yellow sweet clover plus mountain bromegrass or slender wheatgrass; Ladak alfalfa plus smooth brome and big bluegrass (high rainfall) or crested wheatgrass (low rainfall); early spring seeding recommended without nurse crop; methods of establishment, plow sweetclover at 12-22" height; use sweetclover as a surface mulch to prevent erosion. T: soil moisture and sweetclover growth; wheat after sweetclover; yield and protein.
4807. Nelson, A.L.. 1950. Methods of tillage for winter wheat.. WY Agr. Expt. Sta. Bulletin 300.
Fallow/winter wheat production decreased soil N by 33% in the top 6" over 35 years. Continuous cropping lost 24% of the soil N. Crop rotations using green manure every 4th year did not decrease the loss of soil N. Average winter wheat yields (bu/ac) over 34 years for 3 rotations were: oats/rye(GM)/winter wheat/corn - 12.9; oats/peas(GM)/winter wheat/corn - 12.7; fallow/winter wheat - 13.7; oats/corn/winter wheat/rye - 13.2; oats/corn/winter wheat/peas - 14.1; oats/corn/winter wheat/fallow - 13.2. It was observed that green manure took years to break down. Tillage with an eccentric one-way increased winter wheat yields 2 bu/ac over 10 years compared to plowing. The eccentric one-way conserved moisture. Continuous cropping resulted in winter wheat yields 55% of biennial yields following fallow. Soil moisture was 3-4% lower in October after continuous cropping versus fallow.
6489. Smith, H.W., S.C. Vandecaveye and L.T. Kardos.. 1946. Wheat production and properties of Palouse silt loam as affected by organic residues and fertilizers.. WA Agr. Expt. Sta. Bull. #476.
Examined soil properties from 2 plots at the WSC farm. T: Effects of treatments on nitrogen content of grain and straw. Effects of treatments in C and N changes in soil. Effects of treatments on aggregation and % saturation by sodium. Yields of wheat under annual cropping as affected by organic residue and N fertilizer, 1922-1945. Yields of wheat under wheat/fallow as affected by organic residue and N fertilizer, 1922-1945.
8675. Dalal, R.C. and R.J. Mayer. 1986. Long-term trends in fertility of soils under continuous cultivation and cereal cropping in southern Queensland. 1. Overall changes in soil properties. Austr. J. Soil Res. 24:265-279.
10287. Bhatti, A.U., D.J. Mulla, and B.E. Frazier. 1991. Estimation of soil properties and wheat yields on complex eroded hills using geostatistics and thematic mapper images.. Remote Sensing Environ. 37:181-191.
Spatial variability of organic carbon, soil P, and wheat yields was measured in eastern Washington using classical statistics and geostatistics. Organic carbon content was estimated from Landsat Thematic Mapper images. Goestatistics revealed strong spatial correlations relative to classical statistics. The spatial patterns were associated with changes in surface organic matter content across the landscape resulting from extensive erosion.
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March 31, 2004