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2607. Hilander, S. (ed.). 1989. Proceedings of AERO's soil building cropping systems conference. December 7-9, Lewistown, MT. AERO, 44 N. Last Chance Gulch #9, Helena, MT 59601.
Summarizes the talks given at the conference. Much information is from Canadian researchers in Saskatchewan who are working on low water use legumes as fallow replacements.

3329. MacRae, R.J. and G.R. Mehuys. 1985. The effect of green manuring on the physical properties of temperate-area soils.. Advances Soil Sci. 3:71-94.
This is a review chapter focusing on the non-nutrient benefits of green manures (e.g. soil physical improvement, particularly for corn in temperate climates. Organic matter plays more of a role in aggregate stability than in aggregate formation. This occurs through the by-products of organic matter decomposition (microbial gums and mucilages). Low-N green manures (1.5% N or less) generally are more effective in building organic matter levels. While sweeping conclusions are difficult, the benefits of green manuring on crop yield are most apparent during dry periods, particularly in rainfed production systems.

5225. Pieters, A.J.. 1927. Green manuring: principles and practice.. J. Wiley & Sons, N.Y. 356pp..
An excellent early summary of green manuring, in America and around the world; discusses the crucial role of maintaining soil organic matter; describes many green manure plants and their uses wiht various crops in different regions; over 350 references are cited. T: nitrogen value of green manures, biomass.

5705. Rasmussen, P.E., H.P. Collins, and R.W. Smiley. 1989. Long-term management effects on soil productivity and crop yield in semi-arid regions of eastern Oregon.. OR Agr. Expt. Sta. Bulletin 675.
Summary of over 50 years of plot research at Pendleton, OR, with some results from Weston and Moro. Focuses on results from a continuous set of plots at the Pendleton station. Manure maintained highest yields, highest soil organic matter, highest pH compared to other treatments. Nitrogen fertilizer had a more marked effect on water infiltration than various tillage treatments. Green manure systems are generally not economic in the drier areas, due to competition for moisture with wheat, which is the most profitable crop. Legumes can contribute between 40 and 80 lb/ac N to the following crop. Varietal improvement over the past 50 years has been the most significant factor in increasing wheat yields. Burning straw accelerated organic matter losses from the soil and eventually reduced yields. Marginal returns have generally been lower from alternative crops than from wheat.

10576. Janzen, H.H. and G.D. Radder. 1989. Nitrogen mineralization in a green manure amended soil as influenced by cropping history and subsequent crop.. Plant Soil 120:125-131.
In a greenhouse study, surface soil from long-term experimental spring wheat rotations was amended with 15N labelled legume green manure and subsequently cropped (canola and spring wheat) or incubated. N mineralization from both the indigenous soil N and from green manure was suppressed in cropped soil. Net N mineralization in the uncropped and cropped treatments averaged 73 and 43 mg/kg, respectively. This difference was attributed in part to enhanced biological immobilization in the rhizosphere. These data suggest that short-term N mineralization is favored by fallowing soil after green manure application whereas N retention in organic matter is favored by immediate cropping.

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