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2607. Hilander, S. (ed.). 1989. Proceedings of AERO's soil building cropping systems conference. December 7-9, Lewistown, MT. AERO, 44 N. Last Chance Gulch #9, Helena, MT 59601.
Summarizes the talks given at the conference. Much information is from Canadian researchers in Saskatchewan who are working on low water use legumes as fallow replacements.
3329. MacRae, R.J. and G.R. Mehuys. 1985. The effect of green manuring on the physical properties of temperate-area soils.. Advances Soil Sci. 3:71-94.
This is a review chapter focusing on the non-nutrient benefits of green manures (e.g. soil physical improvement, particularly for corn in temperate climates. Organic matter plays more of a role in aggregate stability than in aggregate formation. This occurs through the by-products of organic matter decomposition (microbial gums and mucilages). Low-N green manures (1.5% N or less) generally are more effective in building organic matter levels. While sweeping conclusions are difficult, the benefits of green manuring on crop yield are most apparent during dry periods, particularly in rainfed production systems.
4510. Miller, P.R., W.L. Graves, and W.A. Williams. 1989. Covercrops for California agriculture.. Publication 21471, Div. of Agriculture and Nat. Res..
The potential use of cover crops in annual and perennial cropping systems in CA is described. The booklet includes annual and perennial legumes, cereals, crucifers, grasses, and mixtures. Data illustrating the benefit of cover crops on infiltration and soil organic matter are presented. Selection of proper crops is described. Seeding recommendations are presented.
4921. Oien, David. no date. Black medic information packet.. Timeless Seeds, RR 3 Box 461, Conrad, MT 59425.
This packet is sent to growers who purchase seed. The seeding rate is recommended at 8-10 lb/ac, planted 1/2" deep into a firm seedbed. Field trials have indicated successful medic establishment with barley, oats, spring wheat, and flax as nurse crops, but a second year of medic growth is then necessary for adequate seed production. On-going experiments in Montana (Jim Sims, MSU) are examining several rotations: medic-cereal, sweetclover-cereal, fallow-ceral, and continuous cereal, with different nitrogen rates. Results indicate that the green manures used 1-3" more soil moisture than the other treatments. Wheat yields after medic and sweetclover (25 bu/ac) were significantly higher than all other treatments. An herbicide screening tested a number of alfalfa herbicides on black medic. Poast, Fusilade, Treflan, and Kerb did not injure medic, while paraquat, Pursuit, and 2,4-DB ester caused minor injury. Solicam provided the best overall weed control with little injury to the medic.
7524. White, J.G.H.. undated. Grain legumes in sustainable cropping systems; a review.. unpublished manuscript, Plant Science Dept..
This paper briefly reviews the role that grain legumes can play in sustaining cropping systems. It presents various estimates of N fixation of grain legumes, with lupin and fababean showing the highest rates, followed by peas and lentils, chickpeas, and soybeans. Phaseolus beans are generally poor N fixers. Fababeans are more tolerant of soil mineral N than other species and will still fix large quantities of N when mineral N is present. Under drought stressed conditions, peas and lentils were more efficient in N fixation than fababeans. Only in lupins and fababeans was N fixation normally greater than the N removed in the seed. The roots and nodules of grain legumes are likely to be the greatest source of N for following crops. This N is often quickly mineralized within several weeks after harvest, and strategies are needed to prevent its loss. Grain legumes are also beneficial break crops, particularly for soil-borne diseases, and can help to control certain grassy weeds. Preceding grain legumes with a brassica crop has reduced the incidence of Aphanomyces root rot in peas, due to sulfur containing compounds. Most grain legumes suffer reduced yields if soils are compacted and poorly aerated. The paper contains numerous references and tables on nitrogen relations.
8949. Stockdale, R.C. 1913. The development of cover crop roots.. M.S. thesis, Washington State College, Pullman, WA.
11174. Brusko, M. (ed.). 1992. Managing cover crops profitably.. Sustainable Agriculture Network Handbook Series No. 1, USDA-SARE Program, Washington, DC.
This easy-to-use guide to cover crops for the United States contains much general information on cover crop species and potential applications.
11244. Sims, J.R. and A.E. Slinkard. 1991. Development and evaluation of germplasm and cultivars of cover crops.. IN W.L. Hargrove (ed.) Cover crops for clean water. Soil Water Cons. Soc., Ankeny, IA.
Historically, forage legume improvement has received minimal attention relative to other major crops. This has limited the availability of well-adapted and studied cultivars for dryland environments. Adaptation of the Australian ley farming system to Montana is showing promise with annual medics. Also, cereal-pulse rotations are being successfully used in more areas. Over twenty potential fallow-replacing cover crops are being evaluated across Montana. The Indianhead lentil, developed in Saskatchewan as a cover crop, is also showing promise.
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March 31, 2004