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2128. Fritz, M.. 1989 Aug.. Winter wheat resistant to snow mold.. Growers Guide p. A7.
A new hard red winter wheat (Blizzard) is available, which is resistant to snow mold. Seed is available from the Idaho crop improvement association.
2597. Herrman, T. and M.V. Wiese. 1984. Foot rot control in winter wheat using tillage, rotation, variety, fungicide, and nitrogen variables.. ID Agr. Expt. Sta. CIS #737.
Worst infection with conventional tillage; Stephens a more resistant variety; 3 yr rotation had lowest level, also lower levels with peas versus lentils; fungicides increased yields 4-6 bu/ac; no effect of level of N fertilizer; evidence from other areas that green manure could reduce infection levels; late fall tillage reduces infection; reduced tillage intensifies other diseases such as Cephalosporium stripe and Fusarium root rot. T: disease incidence by tillage, variety, fungicide.
6359. Smiley, R., D. Wilkins, W. Uddin, S. Ott, K. Rhinhart, and S. Case. 1989. Rhizoctonia root rot of wheat and barley.. OR Agr. Expt. Sta. Special Report 840, p. 68-79..
Rhizoctonia root rot is now considered the most severe root disease of barley in the PNW. It is more important than take-all and Pythium on wheat produced in drier areas (<16" precip.). Based on long-term plots at Pendleton, different management systems are unlikely to greatly influence the biological resistance of soils to Rhizoctonia. Rotational crops susceptible to Rhizoctonia include wheat, barley, peas, chickpeas, lentils, and rapeseed. The disease is less apparent on small grains after legumes than after cereals. Rhizoctonia damage is always highest on no-till systems, but yields may not suffer due to improved water relations under conservation tillage. Australian research indicates that applications of N and P fertilizers can reduce the disease. There appear to be detrimental herbicide interactions with Rhizoctonia, particularly Glean on high pH soils. Also, the use of glyphosate increased disease incidence, perhaps by signalling the pathogens to move from the dying plants to newly seeded ones. A delay of at least 2 weeks is suggested between chem kill and planting of a new crop.
6370. Smiley, R.W.. 1990. Seed treatment fungicides for wheat and barley.. Sherman Station Field Day handout, OSU, Moro, OR.
Seed applied fungicides failed to improve yields of winter wheat or were inconsistent from site to site and/or year to year. The most consistent treatment for winter wheat was a combination of Apron and Vitavax 200. This mixture increased wheat yields by 3%. Fall barley yields were either unchanged or reduced, while spring barley showed the best economic response. Thus, an economic response to seed treatment is unlikely in the absence of damaging amounts of smut disease. Since control of smut depends on the combination of fungicide seed treatments and genetic resistance, which has been stable for decades, the use of untreated seed is discouraged to avoid the loss of genetic resistance by cereal cultivars.
10814. Heim, M., R.J. Cook, and D.J. Kirpes. 1986. Economic benefits and costs of biological control of take-all to the Pacific Northwest wheat industry.. Research Bulletin 0988, Agr. Res. Center, Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA.
Take-all can severely lower wheat yields. One possible control is through the use of antagonistic Pseudomonad bacteria applied to wheat seed. Disease surveys in the region verified increased disease problems with grain intensive rotations and with reduced till or no-till farming. Overall, an estimate 600,000 acres are affected by take-all in the region. Estimates of the cost of a commercial bacterial seed treatment were $14.30/ac applied. Wheat yields were assumed to increase an average of 5-10% from this. At a wheat price of $3.00/bu, a minimum 5 bu/ac increase is needed to break even on the treatment.
10931. Cook, R.J., J.W. Sitton, and W.A. Haglund. 1987. Influence of soil treatments on growth and yield of wheat and implications for control of Pythium root rot.. Phytopathology 77:1192-1198.
Thirty-three of 39 wheat fields sampled in eastern Washington from 1983-1986 had high levels of Pythium spp. Soil fumigation eliminated 95-99% of the inoculum and resulted in adult wheat plants that were 3-10 cm taller than those grown in nontreated soil. Solarization and straw burning eliminated 80-90 and 40-50% of the Pythium inoculum respectively and resulted in taller plants. Wheat yields were 13-36% greater in response to fumigation in fields where wheat was grown every other year, 3-12% greater where wheat was grown every third year and 19 and 14% greater respectively in response to solarization and burning.
11017. Cook, R.J.. 1986. Wheat management systems in the Pacific Northwest.. Plant Disease 70(9):894-898.
Strategies for reducing disease problems and increasing yields closer to potentials of the site are described for four agroecosystems: rainfed wheat-fallow, rainfed annual crop; irrigated; western OR and WA.
11057. Cook, R.J.. 1980. Fusarium foot rot of wheat and its control in the Pacific Northwest.. Plant Disease 64:1061-1066.
Fusarium foot rot occurs mainly in low to intermediate rainfall areas of the PNW (20-40 cm) where wheat is grown after fallow. The disease appears related to water stress. Sometimes nitrogen use can induce water stress and was blamed for the disease. Wheat varieties vary in their susceptibility to the disease. The disease can be controlled by minimizing pathogen population increases and by reducing or delaying water stress. Oats should be avoided since they are an excellent host for the disease. Actions to improve water infiltration and storage reduce the chance of water stress. By maintaining residue on the surface, airborne saprophytic fungi will colonize it and prevent Fusarium from doing so. N applications should be based on realistic yields so water stress will not be induced. September seeding, rather than August, avoids excessive foliar growth which can induce water stress.
11067. Cook, R.J. and J.T. Waldher. 1977. Influence of stubble-mulch residue management on Cercosporella foot rot and yields of winter wheat.. Plant Disease Reporter 61:96-100.
The stubble-mulch method of residue management at Pullman, WA, did not favor more Cercosporella foot rot than the moldboard plow method. Foot rot was generally less severe on wheat in stubble-mulched plots, apparently because of poorer wheat growth already in early fall. This poorer wheat growth in certain years was not corrected by benomyl application. In general, Cercosporella severity was directly proportional to plant size and vigor in the fall, regardless of tillage method.
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March 31, 2004