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crop rotation nitrogen equivalent
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805. Bezdicek, D.. no date. (STEEP green manure plots). unpublished.
Examined 3 legume green manures (red clover, Austrian winter pea, hairy vetch) and harvested spring pea, with 3 incorporations (plow, disk, chemical kill) and 3 N rates (0, 67, 134 kg N/ha). Prior to tillage, red clover and hairy vetch depleted 3.4 cm/m more moisture than spring pea, and AWP depleted 1.8 cm/m more. Soil residual N was highest under spring pea and lowest under red clover. N fixation estimates ranged from 76 for spring pea to 114 for AWP. Winter wheat yield was highest following red clover that had been plowed or disked. Chemical kill appeared to inhibit wheat yield, and N fertilizer could not overcome this depression. Yields after AWP were lower than red clover but higher than spring peas. Recovery of pea and wheat residue N ranged from 7-10% by a following wheat crop. Overseeding of red clover in a spring cereal was successful. T: residual moisture, N; yield response to the various treatments; recovery of N.
826. Bezdicek, D. and R. Lockerman. no date. Crop rotation and the response of cereal crops to nitrogen in the PNW. unpublished.
Experiments conducted at Pullman, WA and Bozeman, MT. Year 1 - legumes (rainfall -Pullman 500 mm, Bozeman 480 mm). Year 2 -Pullman winter wheat + N (rainfall 350 mm); Bozeman barley + N (rainfall 200 mm). Compared fababean, pea, lentil, chickpea, fallow at both locations. Pullman legumes were used as green manure, Bozeman legumes were harvested for seed. N fertilizer equivalents ranged from 30-86 kg/ha N at Pullman (fallow = 125) and from 27-81 kg/ha N at Bozeman (fallow = 53). All cereals responded to added N, although less so at Pullman. More N was removed in seed than was fixed. Seed legumes appeared to fix 50-100 kg/ha N. The rotation effect was more significant at Pullman. T: cereal yields; fertilizer N equivalent; moisture depletion.
3589. Kirby, E.M.. 1987. Soil moisture depletion and wheat yield response from annual legumes in the Pacific Northwest. M.S. Thesis, Dept. of Agronomy and Soils, WSU, Pullman, WA.
Legumes included chickpea, spring pea, lentil, fababean, sweetclover, rose clover, black medic, barrel medic. Sweetclover depleted more soil moisture than other legumes. Wheat yield increased following legumes relative to that after barley. Highest yield followed legume green manure with additional fertilizer N. Grain yields were similar for fallow, lentil, pea, chickpea, and fababean. T: soil moisture depletion; yield, N content of soil and grain.
3955. Mahler, R.L. and D.L. Auld. 1989. Evaluation of the green manure potential of Austrian winter peas in northern Idaho.. Agron. J. 81:258-264.
Austrian winter peas were evaluated as a green manure (GM) or seed pea (SP) crop, along with soil N levels, and subsequent yields of winter wheat (WW) and spring barley (SB). Four rotations were tested: GM-WW-SB; SP-WW-SB; SB-WW-SP; SF-WW-SB. Average N fertilizer equivalent values of 94, 75, and 68 kg/ha were provided by GM, SP, and SF (fallow) respectively, to the following wheat crop. Yield differences due to crop rotation or N fertilization rate were not observed in the third year of the cropping sequence. Austrian winter peas used as either a GM or SP provided more inorganic N than SF or SB. Although cereal crop yields were comparable, the SP-WW-SB was more profitable than GM-WW-SB or SF-WW-SB, due to the extra harvested crop.
7662. Wright, A.T. and E. Coxworth. 1987. Benefits from pulses in the cropping systems of northern Canada. p. 108. IN: J.F. Power (ed.). The role of legumes in conservation tillage systems..
Investigated yield and N response in barley and wheat, 1 and 2 years after pulse crops of fababean, pea, and lentil. Overall yields were higher on fababean and field pea residues than lentils. Soil tests could not attribute yield differences among crop residues to differences in soil N levels at time of seeding. Nitrogen fertilizer equivalents for barley were 105, 85, and 50 lb N/ac for fababean, peas, and lentils. Legume residues influenced barley grain quality. In the second year following pulses, the dry matter yield, grain yield, and N uptake of wheat was 15% higher than in the continuous cereal sequence. Analysis of 3 completed rotation cycles showed that cropping sequences that included pulses were considerably more productive than the continuous cereal sequence in terms of net energy production and economic gross margin to cash costs. Field peas were the most effective first-year crop in terms of net energy production.
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March 31, 2004